Device regarding Human Nourishment, Agency from Food Research and you will Person Nutrients, Farming College away from Athens, 75 Iera Odos St., Athens 11855, Greece; E-Mails: (O.Meters.); (V.B.); (A great.Z.)
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All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001)> Keywords: water balance questionnaire WBQ, winter, summer, hydration, sugar-sweetened drinks, drink
step one. Introduction
Beverages on the categories of beverage, coffee, milk products, juice, carbonated drinks, diet plan products, energy drinks and you can liquor come in a large and growing number of alternatives. Range meets preferences choices, nutritional requirements, and you can lives means, and when many different drinks come, it is very likely to reach euhydration .
Products lead whenever twenty five%–50% from drinking habits [dos,step 3,4], hence he or she is necessary for meeting each and every day drinking water need and having euhydration. Hydration could have been from the restoration off regular real and you can cognitive features .
Although not, it has been argued one drinks lead somewhat for the increasing carrying excess fat rates around the world [6,7], mainly because of the energy articles [8,nine,10]. In certain studies, Glucose Sweetened Drinks (SSB) usage has been of the weight gain in children and you can grownups , while you are proof one coming down SSBs tend to reduce the likelihood of carrying excess fat and you will associated sickness such as diabetes could have been viewed as persuasive . Times consumption out-of products has increased drastically over the past https://kissbrides.com/chinese-women/tianjin/ 40 years by the just as much as 222 fat per person each day .
Still, beverages about certain categories don’t lead equally so you’re able to times consumption . The power posts of drink as well as usage patterns may indicate if not, i.e., specific caloric products can be consumed hardly ergo contributing little to help you day-after-day opportunity intake. This has been argued you to definitely substitution sweetened caloric beverages with liquid might help get rid of total opportunity consumption for the obese customers . Still, use of sweetened caloric beverages is actually a complex procedure that be viewed beyond the caloric sum and in the brand new context out-of weight-loss designs .
Moreover, likewise so you’re able to restaurants usage, individuals factors particularly seasonality, physical working out profile and you may sex can affect this new range within the drink choice and you can sum so you’re able to total energy intake. These issues have not been fully investigated; subsequent knowledge of this type commonly clarify the current case of time consumption from slimming down provide and out-of beverages particularly.
Inside the an earlier investigation used inside the Greece, making use of the H2o Harmony Questionnaire (WBQ) tool, i learned that during the 984 grownups, 24% regarding drinking habits originates from drinks . There’s an enthusiastic unequivocal need certainly to further tricky throughout these findings, elucidating the brand new share of drinks so you can complete time intake and balance.